So, we are only going to summarize some of the most recent and concluding research that is available today.
It was long assumed the Indus Valley civilization flourished between 3,300-1,300 B.There were indications of settlement after 9,000 B. For a decade, researchers from the Florida Museum of Natural History have been excavating the Page-Ladson site, and this past fall  they uncovered the ground surface of a Paleoindian habitation at a depth of 15 feet. These are: Pluto [250 years], Neptune [165 years], Uranus [84 years], Saturn [28 years] and Jupiter [12 years]." - Wiki Trivia - "In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture became widely practised in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. Decline of Indus and Saraswati Civilization - 2200-1900 BC; 6. Period of evolution of syncretic Hindu culture - 1400-250 BC [....] 8,000 B. - Bog Bodies - "Over the past centuries, remains of many hundreds of people - men, women, and children - have come to light during peat cutting activities in northwestern Europe, especially in Ireland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark.This roughly translates to “Rules of Reintegration and Reduction”.This work was specifically covering the branch of mathematics we now know as Algebra and was the most notable work on the subject during this period, covering such things as polynomial equations up to the second degree; introducing methods for reduction and balancing; and other such staple algebraic methods.